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東方公教 - 教會與禮儀: 觀念篇

Christianity - 基督信仰分享與交流

東方公教 - 教會與禮儀: 觀念篇

文章chienwen » 2006.09.22 週五 2:45 PM

東方公教 - I - 教會與禮儀: 觀念篇
原著: 愛爾蘭.麥爾基
翻譯: chienwen
來源: Eastern Catholic Forum

教會

一共有23個自律教會(Churches sui iuris)一起組成東方公教,包括1個西方教會及22個東方及亞洲教會。自律(sui iuris)意即「有自己的法則」或自治。這23個教會,都與羅馬公教會維持懇談交流。拉丁教會是其中最著名、最大的教會。

東方或亞洲的公教會,代表著從祖先時代就同時與羅馬教會及東方或亞洲正教會維持懇談的教會團體。依此原則,每一個東方或亞洲的公教會都有分別有一個東方或亞洲的正教會複本;但有兩個例外:馬龍公教會、義-希-阿爾巴尼亞的拜占庭教會。為何這兩個教會,在正教會裡沒有複本?最主要的原因,是由於這兩個教會未曾與羅馬教會分離。

一個尊循拜占庭禮儀(Byzantine Rite)的教會,技術上稱之為東方公教會,其餘則稱為亞洲公教會。 這個區別,是反映複本或姊妹(正)教會的區別。(也就是說:一個被認為是東方的正教教會,也提供尊循拜占庭禮儀的感恩祭,但亞洲的正教教會並不提供)。然而,基於這個事實,「東方公教」和「亞洲公教」經常被用為一種代表包羅眾多的術語,(「亞洲公教」一詞,首先由梵諦岡開始使用,其餘則使用「東方公教」)用來包含所有的自律公教會,以與拉丁或西方教會區別。

禮儀

在這22個東方及亞洲公教會之中,共使用六種不同的禮儀。大部分的教會(14)使用拜占庭禮儀。

起初,一共有三種禮儀 - 拉丁、亞歷山大 和 安提約基亞;拜占庭(或 君士坦丁堡)禮儀是後來才加上去的。這些禮儀是起源於當時,除了耶路撒冷之外,的四個重要的基督徒中心的崇拜的風俗及時尚。

這些禮儀,在禮拜語言、禮儀指示、儀式、祈禱、祈禱文、禮儀儀式和神職人員的祭服等都有差異。這些差異,起源於一個事實,就是很難長時間的維持一致的慣例。隨著神職人員的增加、地方文化與習俗編入了儀式、因地理因素而阻礙了旅行與交流,也限制了教會與神職人員之間的持續接觸。

一段時間之後,這四個原始的禮儀,被傳播到新的地區,同時也被修改或更進一步的發展。有些變異是非常的明顯,因此當地人自認為是一種不同的禮儀。馬龍禮儀和亞美尼亞禮儀,兩者都因地理關係,相對的隔離發展。很多權威專家也因此把 馬龍 稱為是一種自有的禮儀,但同時也有少數的人,因它的起源,把它歸類為一種安提約基亞禮儀的西敘利亞傳統。就如同亞美尼亞禮儀一樣,雖然它起源於拜占庭禮儀,但都被認為是一種不同的禮儀。

後來,迦勒底也被列入為一種禮儀,就如同在 東方教會法規 或 教會法的東方法典 裡,被正式的引用。從歷史的觀點,直到不久之前,迦勒底習俗都被列為是一種安提約基亞禮儀的東敘利亞傳統。有兩種可能的因素,可以解釋為什麼在最近它會被認為是一種自有的禮儀:

  • 這個改變可能與具有獨特形式的複本教會禮儀儀式有關,例如:東方的亞述教會,在他們最常使用祝聖聖體禱文裡,並沒有明確的祝聖禱文 (就如同迦勒底在還沒有與羅馬懇談之前,所使用的祝聖聖體禱文)。或,
  • 它可能反應出羅馬方面的要求,讓每一個宗主教區都有相關的禮儀。

拉丁、亞美尼亞、迦勒底、和馬龍禮儀等,每一個都只用於單一的自律教會,在這些例子裡,教會的名稱和所使用的禮儀名稱都是一致的。

教會 對 禮儀

長久以來,每一群組的東方公教會,都是以他們的名子來歸類 (經常是反應他們的歷史國家特性或是種族的起源),名稱後面再加上「禮儀」。如此,你便可以聽到有人這樣稱呼「烏克蘭禮儀」或「麥爾基禮儀公教」。在催促東方公教的大主教參加第二屆梵蒂岡會議,特別是真福麥西默斯四世、安提約基亞以及所有東方地區、亞歷山大、耶路撒冷、希臘-麥爾基等地的宗主教、曾經被祝福紀念的,普世教會認可了東方的公教會是自律的教會實體的地位;每一個實體,都有特別的禮儀。因此,以「禮儀」來取代「教會」,是貶低了(同時也不正確)這些主體的名稱。

這些區別在 教會法的東方法典 裡有規定:

教會法 27

一個由祭司階級組織,根據至高權威的普世教會法律標準,明確地聯合的忠實基督徒群體 或是緘默地認可自律,在這個法典裡,稱之為自律教會。

教會法 28

1. 在每一個自律教會裡,禮儀是儀式的、神學上的、精神上的以及紀律的教會遺產、文化、和一個區域裡有自己的生活方式及明確信仰的人們的歷史環境。


除了「禮儀」的法典化定義之外,必須了解集成的儀式的教會遺產或傳統,將引領人們的信仰生活。這個重要性,遠比只是區別語言、文化、服裝等還多,雖然這些總是有很明顯的差異。它總是被認為是完全合適的儀式崇拜服務;它事實上包含了人們信仰表達的總額,包括他們的聖典、聖事、禱詞、音樂、甚至他們信仰藝術表達的觀點以及教會機構的建築風格。

有趣地,在西方地區,人們屬於一種禮儀,並且數種禮儀屬於一個教會 (使用多於一種以上的禮儀)。在東方地區,人們屬於一個教會,並且教會屬於一種禮儀。

這闡明:

  • 大部分西方公教會屬於拉丁禮儀以及少數依附於安博、Bragan、Mozarabic 禮儀,這些都是屬於拉丁教會;
  • 一些東方的公教會屬於麥爾基教會,並且 (與其他13個教會) 使用拜占庭禮儀。


圖檔 Byzantine Cross

翻譯名詞索引
Alexandrean 亞歷山大
Ambrosian 安博;盎博羅削
Anaphora 祝聖聖體禱文;相當於西方的感恩經
Antiochene 安提約基亞;或譯為 安提阿
Armenian 亞美尼亞
Assyrian 亞述
Beatitude 真福
Bragan
Byzantine 拜占庭
Canon Law 教會法
Catholic 公教的
CCEO Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium, 東方教會法規
Chaldean 迦勒底
Constantinoplian 君士坦丁堡
counterpart 複本
Divine Liturgy 感恩祭;東方教會的感恩祭,他們不用彌撒一詞
Eastern 東方的
Eastern Catholic Churches 東方公教會
Eastern Catholicism 東方公教
Eastern Code 東方法典
Greek 希臘
hierarch 大主教
hierarchy 祭司階級組織
Irish 愛爾蘭
Italo-Grieco-Albanian 義-希-阿爾巴尼亞
Jerusalem 耶路撒冷
Latin 拉丁
Liturgy 禮儀儀式;可以是任何儀式
Maronite 馬龍
Maximos 麥西默斯
Melkite 麥爾基;默爾啟;麥勒卡
Mozarabic
Oriental 亦是指「東方的」意思,在此譯為「亞洲的」以與 Eastern 區別
Oriental Catholic Churches 亞洲公教會
Orthodox 正教的
Patriarch 宗主教;舊約裡以色列人的民長,或是東方教會的宗主教
Patriarchate 宗主教區
Rite 禮儀;這個禮儀是用於描述不同的傳統,如拉丁禮、拜占庭禮等
Rome 羅馬
sacrament 聖典
sacramentals 聖事
sui iuris 自律
Syrian 敘利亞
the Church 普世教會 (the + 大寫C)
Ukrainian 烏克蘭
Words of Institution 祝聖禱文

ps.: 有些名詞,我不知道教會的正式譯法,若有錯誤,敬請指正。謝謝。
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文章chienwen » 2006.09.22 週五 2:49 PM

Eastern Catholicism - I - Churches & Rites: The Concepts
Edited by: Irish Melkite
Source: Eastern Catholic Forum

Churches

There are 23 Churches sui iuris that, together, constitute the Catholic Church - 1 Western and 22 Eastern and Oriental Churches. The term sui iuris means, literally, "of their own law", or self-governing. All 23 are in communion with Rome. Obviously, the most well-known and largest is the Latin Church.

Eastern and Oriental Catholic Churches generally represent bodies of persons whose ancestors entered into communion with Rome from the Eastern or Oriental Orthodox Churches. As a consequence, there is a counterpart Eastern or Oriental Orthodox Church to every Eastern or Oriental Catholic Church except two - the Maronite Catholic Church and the Italo-Grieco-Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church. The usual reason advanced as to why these two Churches have no counterpart among the Orthodox Churches is that neither was ever separated from Rome.

Churches that utilize the Byzantine Rite should technically be termed Eastern Catholic Churches, with the remainder being referred to as Oriental Catholic Churches. This distinction mirrors the one that is made among our counterpart or Sister (Orthodox) Churches (i.e., the Churches known as Eastern Orthodox also serve their Divine Liturgy according to the Byzantine Rite; the Oriental Orthodox do not). In point of fact, however, both "Eastern Catholic" and "Oriental Catholic" are often employed as umbrella terms ("Oriental Catholic" is primarily employed by the Vatican; most others are inclined to use "Eastern Catholic") to encompass all Catholic Churches sui iuris other than the Latin or Western Church.

Rites

The 22 Eastern and Oriental Catholic Churches use six different Rites among them. The largest number of Churches (14) use the Byzantine Rite.

Originally, there were three Rites - Latin, Alexandrean, and Antiochene; the Byzantine (or Constantinoplian) Rite was added thereafter. These arose from the customs and style of worship in what were then the four most important Christian centers, other than Jerusalem.

Differences among the Rites in liturgical language, rubrics, ritual, devotionals, prayers, liturgical and clerical vesture, etc., sprang initially from the fact that uniformity of praxis was difficult to maintain over time, as the number of clergy increased, local cultures and customs began to be woven into the rituals used, and both travel and communication were hampered by geography and the limited means available to make and maintain contact between churches and clerics.

Over time, the four original Rites were modified or further developed as they were introduced into new regions. Some of these variations were so distinctive that they themselves came to be deemed as separate Rites. The Maronite and Armenian Rites, both developed in relative isolation because of geography. The result is that most authorities term the Maronite as a Rite unto itself; while a minority place it within the West Syrian Tradition of the Antiochene Rite, where it originated. As to the Armenian, it is always deemed a separate Rite, although it originated as a Byzantine Rite.

Of late, Chaldean has been added to the list of Rites, being formally cited as such in the CCEO or Eastern Code of Canon Law. Historically, Chaldean praxis had, until recently, always been classed as being of the East Syrian Tradition of the Antiochene Rite. There are two possible reasons to account for the recent recognition accorded to it as a Rite unto itself:

  • the change may relate to a unique aspect observed in the Liturgy of its counterpart Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, i.e., that there are no explicit Words of Institution in the Anaphora which they most commonly use (as was also true of the Anaphora used by the Chaldeans, prior to their entry into communion with Rome); or,
  • it may reflect a desire on Rome's part to have a Rite associated with each Patriarchate.

The Latin, Armenian, Chaldean, and Maronite Rites are each used by only a single Church sui iuris and, in each of these instances, the Church's name and that of the Rite are identical.

Church vs. Rite

For a long time, each group of Eastern Catholics was referred to by their name (usually reflective of their historical national identity or ethnic origin), followed by the word "Rite". Thus, you would hear references to someone being of the "Ukrainian Rite" or to "Melkite Rite Catholics". At the urging of the Eastern Catholic hierarchs participating in the Second Vatican Council, particularly His Beatitude Maximos IV Saigh, Patriarch of Antioch & All the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem of the Greek-Melkites, of blessed memory, the Church recognized the status of the Eastern Catholic Churches as sui iuris ecclesial entities, each of which uses a particular Rite. Thus, it is a disparagement (as well as inaccurate) to substitute "Rite" for "Church" in the name of any of these bodies.

The distinction is made in Canons 27 and 28 of the Eastern Code of Canon Law:

Canon 27

A group of Christian faithful united by a hierarchy according to the norm of law which the supreme authority of the Church expressly or tacitly recognizes as sui iuris is called in this Code a Church sui iuris.

Canon 28

1. A Rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary patrimony, culture and circumstances of history of a distinct people, by which its own manner of living the faith is manifested, in each Church sui iuris.


Beyond the codified definition of "Rite", it should be understood to be the collected liturgical patrimony or heritage by which a group of persons conduct their religious life. It is more than just differences in language, culture, and vesture, although those are often among the most immediately obvious distinctions. It's often thought of as strictly applicable to liturgical worship service; it actually includes the totality of a people's religious expression, including their sacraments, sacramentals, prayers, music and even aspects of their religious artistic expression and ecclesial architecture.

Interestingly, in the West, persons belong to a Rite and Rites to a Church (which uses more than a single Rite). In the East, persons belong to a Church and the Church (in some instances, more than a single Church) to a Rite.

To illustrate:

  • most Western Catholics belong to the Latin Rite with smaller numbers adhering to the Ambrosian, Bragan, and Mozarabic Rites, all of which belong to the Latin Church;.
  • some Eastern Catholics belong to the Melkite Church, which (with 13 other Churches) uses the Byzantine Rite.
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文章jackhcliu » 2006.09.22 週五 9:41 PM

Great Job! Thank you for doing this. I love Eastern Catholic Churches!
美洲禮儀 您指的應是亞美尼亞禮儀。
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文章jackhcliu » 2006.09.22 週五 9:50 PM

這是我在另一個網站上看到東方教會的分類法:
請參看http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=3&IndexView=toc
Churches with no counterpart:
• The Maronite Catholic Church
• The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
From the Assyrian Church of the East:
• The Chaldean Catholic Church
• The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
From the Oriental Orthodox Churches:
• The Armenian Catholic Church
• The Coptic Catholic Church
• The Ethiopian Catholic Church
• The Syrian Catholic Church
• The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church
From the Orthodox Church:
• The Melkite Catholic Church
• The Ukrainian Catholic Church
• The Ruthenian Catholic Church
• The Romanian Catholic Church
• The Greek Catholic Church
• Byzantine Catholics in former Yugoslavia
• The Bulgarian Catholic Church
• The Slovak Catholic Church
• The Hungarian Catholic Church
• Eastern Catholic Communities Without Hierarchies

Assyrian Church of the East, Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Orthodox Church, 都是在不同時代從天主教分裂出去的。Armenian不算在Byzantine rite, 也跟他們更早分裂有關。
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文章jackhcliu » 2006.09.23 週六 2:43 AM

在他們最常使用祝聖聖體禱文裡,並沒有明確的祝聖禱文 (就如同迦勒底在還沒有與羅馬懇談之前,所使用的祝聖聖體禱文)

我聽過一個神父說過Chaldean的感恩祭祝聖聖體的禮儀中,神父不念「你們大家拿去吃,這就是我的身體」,也不念「你們大家拿去喝,這一杯就是我的血」,或類似的禱文。
Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam
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文章chienwen » 2006.09.23 週六 10:53 PM

美洲禮儀 您指的應是亞美尼亞禮儀。

謝謝您看得這麼仔細;己經修正錯誤。
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文章chienwen » 2006.10.10 週二 9:44 PM

本文承蒙原作者 愛爾蘭.麥爾基 先生允許翻譯轉載;另有更新訊息如下:
Irish Melkite 寫:You may want to look at an updated and more complete text of it at:

http://www.byzcath.org/bboard/ultimateb ... 2;t=004073
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Irish Melkite

文章jackhcliu » 2006.10.12 週四 2:22 AM

Irish Melkite 好像只是他的 user name. 他的本名好像是:Neil Foley。請見:
http://p075.ezboard.com/bcatholicpillarandfoundation.showUserPublicProfile?gid=irishmelkite
Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam
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文章chienwen » 2006.10.12 週四 10:47 AM

謹遵照原著的回函: "it will be interesting to see "Irish Melkite" in Chinese" , 翻成中文。

"Irish" 翻譯成 "愛爾蘭" 比較沒爭議。

"Melkite" 的翻譯就比較麻煩:
(Different translation way due to similar pronunciation of different Chinese characters)
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